Global Footwear Standards Reference Guide

Work Environment Hazards  

Every work environment exposes workers to different types of hazards. Each employer is required to perform a workplace assessment to determine the presence of work hazards and the need for personal protective equipment (PPE). In the case of foot injuries, common potential hazards include falling or rolling objects, electrical shock or piercing of footwear soles with sharp objects. There are countless situations and hazards that occur in the workplace everyday that can cause serious foot injury. The best protection from the work hazards that you can and cannot anticipate is quality PPE. For footwear, Red Wing Shoe Company is committed to providing quality, safety footwear for every worker every day.

 

The footwear protection guidelines shown on this page were gathered to provide a general overview and quick comparison of global footwear safety standards. This guide is not a definitive standard and we encourage you to refer to the official safety standard for clarification.

 

Testing Methods

 

1. Impact Resistance – This is a test of a shoe's capacity to protect the toe area of the foot against falling objects. For Impact testing, a weight is dropped onto the protective toe cap area of the footwear. Each standard identifies the atmospheric conditions of the test, the shape of the striker, the amount of weight and distance from which the weight must be dropped, the velocity of the drop and the impact energy delivered. The clearance remaining inside the cap after impact is then determined.

 

2. Compression Resistance – This is a test of a shoe's capacity to protect the toe area of the foot against heavy rolling objects. For Compression testing, the toe cap area of the footwear is compressed between parallel platens at a given rate of speed until the required compressive force is reached. The clearance remaining inside the cap after the compression is then determined.

 

3. Metatarsal Protection – This test measures the level of protection provided to the upper foot (metatarsal bones) and toe areas. Footwear offering metatarsal protection is designed to prevent or reduce injuries when the toe and metatarsal areas of the foot are exposed to "drop" hazards. Metatarsal protection safety shoes may be constructed with either internal or external metatarsal guards. For testing, a wax form is fit into the footwear and a weight is dropped onto the protected metatarsal area of the footwear, similar to the impact test. The height of the wax form after impact is then determined. 

 

4. Puncture Resistance – PR footwear reduces the possibility of sharp objects (nails, glass or metal) penetrating through the outsole causing injury to the foot. Protection is provided by a steel or puncture resistant material imbedded in the insole of the footwear. Puncture resistant devices are tested using a sharp steel pin forced into the device at a given speed. The force required to puncture the device is measured. The devices are also tested for flexibility and corrosion resistance.

 

5. Electric Shock Resistance – This type of footwear is designed to provide a secondary source of protection against accidental contact with live electrical circuits, electrically energized conductors, parts or apparatus under dry conditions, reducing the potential of electric shock. Protection is severely deteriorated in wet environments. To test electric shock resistant properties, the footwear is placed on a metal mesh platform acting as a large electrode. The footwear is filled with small metal spheres and a second electrode is placed within the spheres. A specified high voltage is applied to the footwear through the metal platform for a given length of time. Resistance is determined by the current flow (or leakage) through the footwear. 

 

6. Static Dissipation – This footwear is constructed to reduce excess static electricity by conducting the charge from the body to the ground. The footwear allows for limited protection against incidental contact with live electrical circuits and should not to be worn around highly charged electrical equipment. It is recommended that static dissipative footwear be worn only in clean environments and worn in conjunction with static dissipative flooring.   

   

Test methods for Static Dissipation vary by standard, using either human subjects or metal spheres inside footwear that are placed on either a wet or dry base electrode plate. A specified voltage is applied for a prescribed time and the electrical resistance is measured. Test conditions also vary in specified atmospheric conditions.

 

7. Conductivity – Conductive footwear is designed to facilitate/

discharge static electricity from your body through your shoes into grounded floors. The floors must be grounded so that a charge can be dissipated properly, minimize static electricity and reduce the possibility of ignition of volatile chemicals or explosives. To test for conductivity, the footwear is placed on a base electrode plate. Depending on the standard, it is tested dry or in water. The footwear is filled with small metal spheres and a second electrode is embedded in the spheres. A specified voltage is applied for a prescribed time and the electrical resistance is measured

 

 

Comparison of Footwear Safety Standards

Standards compared in this section include Impact, Compression, Metatarsal, Puncture Resistance, Electric Shock, Static Dissipation and Conductive requirements.

 

Impact Requirement

 

ASTM

Class 75 (I) footwear for men shall demonstrate a minimum interior height clearance of (75 ft-lbf). Applies to both steel and composite protective caps. 

 

Class 75 footwear for women shall demonstrate a minimum interior height clearance and 11.9 mm (0.468 in.) during impact exposure of 101.7 J (75 ft-lbf). Applies to both steel and composite protective caps.

 

CSA

Grade 1

Footwear for men and women must withstand an impact energy of 125 joules (the equivalent of a 50 lb. object dropped at a height of 22 inches) with no cracking through the thickness of the cap wall. 

 

Samples must be conditioned and tested at both 70 and 0 degrees Fahrenheit. The minimum interior height clearance varies according to shoe size (ranging from

10.7 mm for a woman’s size 3 to 14.2 mm for a man’s size 14). Protective toecaps must show no signs of corrosion when exposed to a 5% salt solution for 24 hours.

 

EN

Safety footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004. After an impact energy of 200 joules is delivered, the clearance under the toe cap shall be the following:

 

Sizes:

                                                Min.

French           English          Clearance

< 36                < 3.5               12.5 mm

37-38             4-5                  13.0 mm

39-40             5.5-6.5            13.5 mm

41-42             7-8                  14.0 mm

43-44             8.5-10             14.5 mm

45+                 10.5 +             15.0 mm

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Compression Requirement

 

ASTM

Class 75 (C) footwear for men shall demonstrate a minimum interior height clearance of 12.7 mm (0.50 in.) during exposure to a compressive force of 11,121 newtons (2500 lbf). Applies to both steel and composite protective caps. 

 

Class 75 footwear for women shall demonstrate a minimum interior height clearance of 11.9 mm (0.468 in.) during exposure to a compressive force of 11,121 newtons (2500 lbf). Applies to both steel and composite protective caps.

 

CSA

There is no compression standard for CSA.

 

EN

Safety footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004. The clearance under the toe cap at a compression load of 15,000 newtons shall be the following:

 

Sizes:

                                                Min.

French           English          Clearance

< 36                < 3.5               12.5 mm

37-38             4-5                  13.0 mm

39-40             5.5-6.5            13.5 mm

41-42             7-8                  14.0 mm

43-44             8.5-10             14.5 mm

45+                 10.5 +             15.0 mm

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Metatarsal Requirement

 

ASTM

Metatarsal (Mt) protective footwear must first meet the Class 75 requirements for impact and compression resistant footwear.

 

The height of the wax form used to measure metatarsal protection of men’s footwear shall be a minimum of 25.4 mm (1.0 inch) after exposure of impact energy of 101.7 J (75 ft-lbf).

 

For women’s metatarsal protection there shall be a minimum of 23.8 mm (0.937 in.) after exposure of impact energy of 101.7 J (75 ft-lbf).

 

CSA

Metatarsal protective footwear must meet the Grade 1 Toe Cap requirement for impact resistant footwear.

 

The Metatarsal protector must overlap the protective toe cap. Metal metatarsal guards must show no signs of corrosion when exposed to a 5% salt solution for 24 hours.

 

EN

Safety footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004. The minimum clearance at the moment of impact shall be:

 

Sizes:

                                                Min.

French           English          Clearance

< 36                < 3.5               37.0 mm

37-38             4-5                  38.0 mm

39-40             5.5-6.5            39.0 mm

41-42             7-8                  40.0 mm

43-44             8.5-10             40.5 mm

45 +                10.5 +             41.0 mm

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Puncture Resistant Requirement

 

ASTM

Puncture Resistant (PR) footwear must also meet the Class 75 requirements for impact and compression resistant footwear.

 

The puncture resistant insole must withstand a puncture force of 270 lbs., will not crack after 1.5 million flexes and show no signs of corrosion when exposed to a 5% salt solution for 24 hours.

 

CSA

Footwear with protective sole inserts must also meet the Grade 1 requirement for impact resistant footwear. The protective insert shall cover the sole including the heel area.  

 

The puncture resistant insole must withstand a puncture force of 1200 newtons, will not crack after 1.5 million flexes and show no signs of corrosion when exposed to a 5% salt solution for 24 hours. 

 

Footwear is labeled with a green triangle.

 

EN

Penetration Resistant Footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004. The force required to penetrate the sole unit shall not be less than 1,100 newtons. The metal insole must not crack after 1 million flexes and show no more than 5 areas of corrosion smaller then 2.5 mm2 when exposed to a 1% salt solution for 7 days. Non-metallic penetration resistant insoles will be tested according to EN 12568:1998.

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Electric Shock Resistance Requirement

 

ASTM

Electric Shock Resistant (EH) footwear shall also meet the Class 75 requirements for impact and compression resistant footwear.

 

Must withstand the application of 14,000 volts at 60 Hz for 1 minute with no current flow or leakage in excess of 3.0 milliamperes under dry conditions.

 

CSA

Electric Shock Resistant (ESR) footwear must also meet the Grade 1 requirement for impact resistant footwear. 

 

ESR footwear must withstand a test potential of 18,000 volts at 60Hz for 1 minute without disruptive discharge to ground. Under dry conditions, the leakage current shall not exceed 1 milliamperes. 

 

Footwear is labeled with an orange omega on a white rectangle.

 

EN

Electrical Insulation is determined according to the method described in

EN 50321:1999. Footwear must comply with electrical class O or OO.

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Static Dissipative Requirement

 

ASTM

Static dissipative (SD) footwear shall also meet the Class 75 requirements for impact and compression resistant footwear.

 

SD footwear shall reduce the accumulation of excess static electricity while maintaining a level of electrical resistance between 106 ohms (1 megohm) and 108 ohms (100 megohms).

 

CSA

Static dissipative footwear may or may not meet Grade 1 impact resistance. It is tested in water and the electrical resistance shall fall within a range of 106 ohms (W) to 108 ohms (W) for a period of 5 seconds.

 

Footwear is labeled with a green “SD” on a yellow rectangle.

 

EN

Antistatic Footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004 after conditioning in both wet and dry conditions. Electrical resistance shall be above

100,000 ohms (105 W ) and less than or equal to 1,000 megohms (109 W).

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Conductive Protection Requirement

 

ASTM

Conductive (CD) footwear must also meet the Class 75 requirements for impact and compression resistant footwear.

 

Footwear shall dissipate static electricity from the body to reduce the possibility of ignition of volatile compounds. Electrical resistance must range between 0 to 500,000 ohms.

 

CSA

Conductive footwear must meet also the Grade 1 requirement for impact resistant footwear and must electrically ground the foot.

 

The footwear is tested in water and the electrical resistance shall fall within a range of 0 to 500,000 ohms (W) for a period of 5 seconds. 

 

Footwear is labeled with a black “C” on a red rectangle.

 

EN

The electrical resistance of Conductive footwear must be tested in accordance with EN ISO 20344:2004 after conditioning in a dry atmosphere and cannot be greater than 100,000 ohms (W).

 

SINGAPORE

Tested in accordance with SS 513 : Part 2 : 2005

 

Singapore test methods and requirements are identical to the EN Standard.

 

Other Requirements

 

ASTM

ASTM safety footwear must be tested by a third party laboratory. The footwear does not need to be retested unless the standard is revised or the platform construction changes.

 

CSA

CSA safety footwear and the factories that produce the footwear must be certified by CSA International. CSA performs regular audits of both the factory and the footwear. One pair for every 500 pair produced must be tested by the manufacturing facility.

 

EN

EN safety footwear must be tested by an EN certifying body. EN certification encompasses far more than just the safety aspects of the shoe. All components are individually tested as well as the fit and comfort of the footwear. EN has several

categories of safety footwear depending on performance and the footwear is labeled accordingly. The footwear does not need to be retested unless the standard is revised or the platform construction changes.

 

SINGAPORE

Singapore safety footwear and the factories that produce the footwear must be tested by an approved certifying body. Singapore certification encompasses far more than just the safety aspects of the shoe. All components are individually tested as well as the fit and comfort of the footwear. Singapore has several categories of safety footwear depending on performance and the footwear is labeled accordingly. Singapore performs regular audits of the factory and each batch of footwear is inspected upon entry into Singapore.

 

The Standards For Footwear Protection

 

ASTM

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, a preeminent source for technical documentation for industries world wide announced that the former ANSI Z41 Standard for Personal Protection Protective Footwear was

withdrawn in 2005. It was replaced by two new ASTM standards, titled F 2413-05 Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Foot Protection and F 2412-05 Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection. These new standards provide safety and performance standards previously put forward by ANSI since 1967.

 

ASTM website www.astm.org

 

 

CAN/CSA-Z195-02 Protective Footwear

A National Standard of Canada approved March 2003

 

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) was chartered in 1919 and is a non-profit, voluntary membership association engaged in standards development and certification activities. The standards are used widely by industry and commerce and often adopted by municipal, provincial and federal governments in their regulations.

 

CSA Standard Z195, Protective Footwear, covers the design and performance requirements for protective footwear, including toe protection, sole puncture protection, electric-shock resistant soles and other requirements relating to metatarsal protection and general stability of the footwear.

 

CSA website www.csa.ca

 

EN ISO 20345:2004

The European Standard was approved by CEN (European Committee for Standardization) on 2 January 2004 and supersedes EN 345. This European Standard specifies basic and additional (optional) requirements for safety footwear. The European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French and German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

 

EN website www.iso.org

 

 

Singapore Standard SS 513:2005 (ISO 20345:2004)

This Singapore Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee on Personal Safety and Ergonomics under the purview of the General Engineering and Safety Standards Committee. This standard, comprised of Part 1 and Part 2, supersedes SS 105: 1997 – ‘Safety footwear’. Part 1 specifies basic and additional (optional) requirements for safety footwear and Part 2 specifies methods for testing footwear designed as personal protective equipment.

 

Part 1 of SS 513 is identical with EN ISO 20345:2004 – ‘Personal protective equipment- Safety footwear’. Part 2 of SS 513 is identical with EN ISO 20344:2004 Personal protective Equipment- Test Methods for Footwear.

 

Singapore Standard website www.standards.org.sg

 

Disclaimer

Red Wing Shoe Company, Inc. expressly states that this guide does not represent the actual formal standard – it only provides a quick comparison and general descriptions of testing methods and requirements. Refer to the actual published standards for specific requirements.

 

This general standards reference guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of these standards to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

 

The standards are subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee(s). ASTM standards must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either re-approved or withdrawn.

 

References

ASTM Web Site: www.astm.org

Canadian Standards Association (CSA):www.csa.ca

European Standard (EN): www.iso.org

Singapore Standard (SS): www.standards.org.sg

American National Standards Institute (ANSI): www.ansi.org

International Organization for Standardization (ISO): www.iso.ch

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): http://www.osha.gov

 

 

 

 

ASTM standards information is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

EN standards information is copyrighted by the European Committee for Standardization, rue de Stassart, 36, B-1050 Brussels.

CAN/CSA standards information by Canadian Standards Association, 5060 Spectrum Way, bureau 100, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6.

SS standards information is copy by SPRING Singapore, 2 Bukit Merah Central, Singapore 159835.